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76 Estuaries floodplains of Venezuela: l. lctiofauna and conservation. Antonio Machado - Allison Faculty of Sciences. Tropical Zoology Institute. Biology Museum. Coordinating Council of Scientific and Humanistic Development. Central University of Venezuela. Caracas. Venezuela. • Keywords: lctiofauna. Flooded savannas. Impacts. ConseNación. Abstract This paper presents a general discussion on the ecological conditions in flood areas of Vene1) 1ela commonly known as · • estuaries ", its fish fauna and natural and human factors that affect the development and maintenance of the conumidad. As (, including an inventory of the fish, its biological and economic importance. Discusses natural climatic factors that regulate the bio · ecological and physiological responses of fish and (adaptations) to such factors. Moreover, natural climatic factors regulating the life history of the fish fauna and other aquatic organisms in these areas. Moreover, we discuss some anthropogenic changes that corrupt the water quality and affect biogeochemical cycle and causing significant changes that put in danger preserving · the fish fauna in these areas. Finalmellle is iJufican a series of recommendations on the proper management of the resource ictfcola and mitigation mechanisms and control of factors affecting fish populations and other aquatic organisms. l. Introduction Extensive flooding tropical savanna regions of America. usually are located on both sides of Ecuador • • about 1 () 9 North Latitude and 1 () 9 South Latitude. The vast majority of these areas are climatically regimented for their annual cycle drought variable or "summer" and rain or "winter" (Fig. 1), which usually results in extensive flooding in the low, flat forming extensive lagoons or estuaries .. • shallow and warm. {Mage In Venezuela-Leccia. 1970b) to As in Guyana (Lowe McConnell, 1964), these floods are slightly out of phase with respect to the onset of the rains. ~ Ue in our country is mainly due to two factors: 1) The rivers from the Andes (Meta. Arauca. Apure, Uribante, Portuguese. Guaviare. Manapire, Pao. Etc.) And the Guyana Shield (Orinoco and Caura) . waters rise gradually to invade riparian gallery forests and adjacent savannas and 2) there is a retention of downstream waters due to a low slope and impoundment caused by rising water level of major rivers (eg Orinoco). causing an overflow and inlet water through small pipes and creating an anastomosis of interconnected estuaries that stretch as a shallow mirror by thousands of square lómetros ki. "The flood plains along major rivers have some of the most highlighted / is of low areas of the Amazon. The 50 -. . . . . . . - • • o .. .. .. -. . - .. .. . - .. EFMA M JJ Machado: The Estuaries 77 great interdigitización di 'and as • ws til'rra gives this distinctiveness ónica lt1 loves cemral region. Here. specific conditions IÍnicas 1/Cneralmellle ecologists offer opportunities to observe naturale a periodic alternation between water and land. " (Junk et al, / 989). From the biological point of view (ecological, evolutionary and taxonomic) this cycle cl [Annual matic has influenced the life as a whole in these temporary aquatic regions of South America in general and our country in particular. Reproduction and Development {growth) of many aquatic species is done in a short period and is explosive. creating temporary biotopes components and positively influence the subsequent development of the fauna of the rivers and streams of permanent water. The litho and zooplankton, as well as also the numerous species of aquatic plants and rooted {float), passed during this rainy season and the reproductive phase of growth. This complexity and diversity of aquatic microflora and microfauna attached to the great heterogeneity of flooded environments guarantee the reproduction and growth of numerous species of fish (Table 1.). many of which are adapted to withstand the rigors of drastic environmental changes during the next period sequla. Examples of such adaptations are not limited to: Food NicoyTaphorn, 1988, Machado-AIIison, 1987a, 1990, 1993, Machado-AIIison and Garcia, 1986; Machado-AIIisony Royere, 1986; Mago-Leccia, 1970b; Marrero. 1990; Marrero et al., 1987; .3 .3 ~ Prejs and Prejs, 1987; Winemiller. 1989b, 1990), Respiratory (Carter. 1935, Carter and Beadle, 1931, Kramer et al. 1978; Liem, 1969; Lowe-McConnell. 1964. 1975. 1987: Machado-AIIison, 1987a, 1990; Machado-AIIison and Zaret. 1984) Physiological (Driedzic et al .. 1978; Garlic et al., 1979) Morphological (Lowe-McConnell, 1975, 1987, Kramer et al. 1978). Etoiógicas (Roberts. 1972; Mago-Leccia. 1970b) Reproductive (Lopez and Machado-AIIison. 1975: MachadoAIIison. 1986. 1987a, 1990. 1992 AIIison Machado and Lopez. 1975 Machado-AIIison and Zaret. 1984; Magician -Leccia. 1983; Winemiiler. 1989a) Biodlversidad (Lasso and Castroviejo, 1992: Lowe-McConnell. 1964.1975. 1987 AIIison Machado. 1987a, 1993; Mago-Leccia. 1970a. 1978). among others. For the reasons stated above and because this great flooded area produces a huge amount of biomass of primary origin, which ia 78 Trlbun11 datlnvasttgador, Vol.1, Ni 2, 1994 TABLE 1 LIST OF SPECIES (LARVAE AND JUVENILE) IDENTIFIED IN FLOOD AREAS Hoplostemum liuora / e Loricarichthys typus Pterygoplicthys Pseudohemidon mrdtiradiatus laticeps Parauchenipterus Hypostomus plecostomus ga / eatus Emonrocorus astronotus benjamini OCEL / atus I ros festivum Papiliochromis Cichlasoma ramiresi orinocense Plagioscion Apisrogramnra squamossisimus viejita Eigenmania devenanzi virescems Rabdolichops Stenropygus rroscheli macrums Mylossoma Adontostemarclws durivemre Asryanax Mylossoma falcatus Acestrorhynchus aureum nigripinnis Markiana metae Triponheus Clrarax angulatus gibbosus Triporrheus and / ongatus Proclrilodus eigenmani mariae Callophysus Megalodoras hemiliopterus irwini Ramphichthys Orinocodoras Goslinea nrannoratus filamentoswn platynema Pimelodus Pseudoplatystoma blochi fasciatum Pimelodus Pseudoplarysroma Sorubimiclrthys Omatus Apteronotus albifrons planiceps Prerolebias Hypoplrtlralmus lrognei edelllatrts zonatus guppy Cynolebias • give support base to many aquatic organisms including larval and juvenile inland fish species. has allowed unursery suggest them as areas "and should be under special protection regime (Lowe-McConne 'll, 1964, 1975, 1987, Machado-AIIison. 1987a. 1990. 1993: MagoLeccia. 1967. 1970b. 1978). Copeina love / di Pyrrlw / ina brevis Cheirodon rmilineatus Hemigramnrus pu / redeye cariba clrer irritans Pygocentrus Serrasa / mus nredinai rhombeus Serrasalnws Moenkhausia / epidural Ctenobrycon spilunts Aplryoclrarax a / bumus issognathus Hoplias Leporinum malabaricus friderici Sclrizodon Cyplrocharax cir spilurus Piaracms Curimata braclrypomus cerasin Cynodon Colossoma gibus nracropomunr gulo Acestroceplralus Roeboides Asryanax affinis fasciams Hydrolicus Roeboides scomberoides dayi Abramites hypse / onotus Pe / Pe castelneana canvas / canvas f / avipirmis Brachyplarysroma Brachyplasrysroma roseauxi juruense Brachyplarystoma Braclryplasrystoma vaillanti filamentosum Paulicea raninus luetkeni Pseudopimelodus Phractocephalus aprtrensis hemilioprerus Ageneiosus Pseudopimelodus. Apteronotus magoi maculipinnis Bonaparti Potamouygon Synbrancl111s orbigny marmoratus Rivulus Rachovia stel / IFER Complementing this, it has been estimated fish production {biomass) in some of these areas flooded savannas of tropical America and Al rich. determining a high variability found among the 100 K g / ha to 9, 000 Kg / Ha (Table 2). These data indicate that apr9piado management of these systems and resources in our country Machado: L.os Estuaries 79 TABLE 2 COMPARISON OF THE ichthyomass (Kg / Ha) ON INLAND TROPICAL. MACHADO CONVERTED .. ALLISON (1993) South America REGIO N R. Apure (plains), Venezuela R. Apure (plains), Venezuela R. Apure (Modules), Venezuela R. Guarico, Venezuela R. Magdalena, Colombia. R. Magdalena (Savannah), Colombia R. Parana, Argentina Lagoons Lagoons temporary permanent Guasu Mogi, Brazil Madeira. Brazil to Africa Sokoto, Nigeria Fund intermediate sandy muddy Fund R. Chari, R. West Africa Niger, Nigeria R. Kajue, Zambia R. Kajue (Savannah), Zambia Asia India (131agos) R. Mekong, China could increase the exploitation of economically important species such as: cachamas (Colossoma macropomun) coporos (Prochilodus mariae}, curitos (Hoplosternum liuorale), brackets (Mylossoma durivemre) morocotos (Piaractus brachypomus) pavonas (astronotus ocellatus ), c urbinatas (Piagioscion squamossisimus) rayaos (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, P. tigrinum) and guavinas (Hoplias malabaricus) among many others, yet their conservation by implementing special programs for environmental protection. 11. Factors affecting the biological cycle in estuaries "South America is one of the few regions of the world which includes large areas of undisturbed natural habitats yet. these areas contain as much as half of the species of plants and animals of the world" (Translation, Hamleu, J992: v) Kg / Ha 354-571 982 1279 -9379 650 122 33 1264 918 313 52 691-1007 196-270 585.1440 5116 60 160 64-2682 5-2200 41 Taphorn and Liyestron SOURCE • 1984 Mago-Leccia, 1970 Ramos et al. 1981 Machado-AIIison and Royere. Kapetsky 1986, Welcomme 1977, Lowe-McConnell 1979, Gomez and Monteiro 1984. Goulding 1955, 1979, 1980 Holden, 1963 Loubens. Motwani and Kanwai 1969, 1970 Kapetsky, 1974 Lagler et al . Sreenivasan 1971. Welcomme 1972. 1979 The above quote shows the importance of the conservation of natural habitats large areas of undisturbed even in South America. tends Human behavior has changed from that at least three events or tragedies during this century: 1 . Publication Carson's book, Silent Spring {1962), which introduced into the public health and environmental hazards that carry domestic and industrial waste and the wide coverage of the tragedy of Minamata • accident. "in which several hundred tons of mercury (Hg) that were downloaded in Minamata Bay (Japan) in 1950. found their way through the food chain (tuna), affecting thousands of people. poisoning caused the loss of motor control, paralysis and mental disorders. Hundreds of people have died because of this mercurial contamination 2.'s well-known case of "Mild Channel" in the United States. which allowed a 80 Tribune Researcher, Vol.1, N11 2, 1994 profuse discussion about the disposal of hazardous pollutants and 3. The recent environmental meeting in Rio (1992). in which many countries have drawn attention to the importance of preserving natural areas and their commitment to preserve them for the future benefit of mankind. Todavla But human activities are threatening many environments in South America in general and Venezuela in particular mainly rainforests. the adjacent rlos. flooded savannas and aquatic environments. As an example of the foregoing. discutiré algunas generalidades sobre el impacto ecológico causado por la intervención humana las cuales afectan las comunidades de peces de las áreas inundables del llano. Son pocos los trabajos cientlficos que muestran la calidad y cantidad del impacto biológico causados por cambios en el régimen hidrológico en nuestro pals. Sin embargo, basados en trabajos desarrollados en otros paises {Petts. 1984, 1990), nuestras observaciones. planes del gobierno, privados y reportes técnicos (Machado-AIIison. 1987; Mago-Leccia. 1978; Pérez-Hernández. 1983; Rangel, 1979; Taphorn. 1980. Veillon, 1981), podemos clasificar esta intervención como: represamiento de aguas con fines domésticos. agrícolas o industriales; desforestación de cabeceras de ríos para uso agricola o agropecuario; ~saneamiento• de tierras para uso agrlcola o control de inundaciones: actividades de mineria {petróleo) y transporte fluvial. Todas estas actividades han causado algún dar'\oo intervención en el régimen hidrológico natural y en los ciclos biológicos de los organismos acuáticos que afectan directamente las comunidades acuáticas y de peces en los llanos de Venezuela. 11.1 . Represamfento de aguas {Ffg. 2). Represas para uso agricola o doméstico, han sido construidas en casi todas las cabeceras de los ríos localizados en la vertiente norte de la cuenca del Orinoco. Ríos tales como el Boconó, Cojedes. Guanare, Guárico. Masparro. Portuguesa. entre otros, se encuentran realmente afectados. Este represamiento de las aguas produce cambios en las comunidades de peces de la siguiente manera: 11.1.1. Alteración o regulación del régimen hidrológico natural {Ffg. 3). Debido a la construcción extensiva de represas y diques en los últimos 20 años. muchos rlos han perdido la capacidad de mantener su régimen hidrológico natural. Los cambios producidos han perturbado los ciclos biogeoqulmicos en estos ambientes acuáticos afectando la variedad y densidad de las especies. En forma general. estas modificaciones afectan principalmente: a. Eliminación de las migraciones ( ccrlbasones») con propósitos reproductivos. Esto es debido principalmente a obstáculos físicos, disminución de la cantidad de agua o cambios en el comportamiento («reloj •), debido FIGURA 2 Machado: Los Esteros 81 FIGURA 3 EFECTO DEL REPlmSAMIENTO y MODIF1CACION . , . ·::~·..; . . ···. •' . DEL €.l€LOHIDROLOGICO·' . ;; LLmThS . + ' RF.PRODUCCION C. ·n ., , .J:l~;~' ...c.....· á.q, .!.\~ ~~~-..r., . Ja;~. '.. .·1;·.:~r 'J~...' o· :·. ... DIVERSIDAD' A :: . . LLUVIAS + Nl!TR1ENT'E8 RF.PRODUCCION , , , 1 CRJ-s;' r···~-1\~~T&;'·r--:r·-''0 · r ..t.:; .........J .l~J..SJ:.:.:. .: ~ 1.. .. 1 _.:-: ' , DIVERSIDAD 1 , .. ·•· ·'/ AM . JJ ::::~::_; :~:: : .• ' \. \ . AMBIENTE .. , • •·. ., . ' . . ·. 'A€UAN~O · .. AS o " ' SEQ"LlA · MORTALIDAD ·' HACINAMIENTO -.. -;.. ·. · ADAPTACION M SEQ"lT:IA MORTALIDAD HACINAMIENTO ADAPTACION NDEFM 92 Trib1.1na dcllnvc:;tigador, Vol. 1, N° 2, 1994 a modificaciones en el ciclo hidrológico. Este último factor limita la información ambiental necesaria para que los peces maduren sus gónadas y se produzca el desove. b. Modificación de los ciclo Biogeoquímicos. En condiciones naturales los nutrientes. provenientes de la descomposición de materia vegetal y animal (alóctono o del sitio). se acumulan en las sabanas inundables durante el periodo de sequía. Este material entra en solución durante el período de lluvias e inundaciones (Bastardo. 1981; LópezHernández y col. 1986a yb). suplementando los nutrientes y cargas particuladas provenientes de áreas rio arriba. Al modificar el régimen hidrológico y evitar las inundaciones periódicas este material orgánico no estará disponible para completar el ciclo biogeoquímico aguas abajo y de esta manera afectarlos organismos acuáticos que dependen del mismo a través de toda la cadena trófica. c. Reducción de las áreas lnundables o estero.s («áreas nursery») en la cuenca. Las aguas represadas ya no se encuentran disponibles durante el periodo de lluvias para invadir las amplias áreas de sabanas bajas y formar los esteros, lagunas y/o bosques de galería inundados ( •varzeas• ). Como hemos indicado anteriormente. estas áreas suministran protección y alimento que son necesarios para el desarrollo de los primeros estadios del desarrollo de numerosas especies de animales acuáticos incluyendo peces de importancia económica (Machado-AIIison. 1987a. 1990). Muchos esteros y lagunas al norte del Orinoco se han secado parcial o completamente y muchos otros se encuentran en peligro. afectando la vida acuática y eventualmente produciendo grandes dal'\os económicos y sociales a los pobladores de las zonas bajas y ribereñas. 11.1.2. Descargas de residuos domésticos y agrícolas. El agua usada por comunidades urbanas altamente concentradas y por actividades agricolas localizadas en las cabeceras de los rfos en la región norte de la cuenca del Orinoco, regresa a los laden river a lot of elements or hazardous to aquatic life, such as detergents, fertilizers and a variety of pesticides, among other contaminants. These elements affect aquatic communities active mainly during the rainy season. when they wash large areas planted with sugarcane. rice and maize in areas such as: Turen. Central Yaracuy, Portuguesa. etc.., producing high mortalities of aquatic organisms and fish right at the beginning of the season. Although this factor has been reported or reported each year in technical reports, audiovisual media and press, less attention has been paid by researchers to define lethal and non-lethal of these substances in our environments and thus to determine measures regulating the use of the same in Venezuela. · 11.2. Deforestation for urban and / or agricultural. The headwaters of many rivers of the Orinoco Basin in Venezuela and Andean regions. Colombia have been extensively deforested affecting the natural water cycle. These human activities have caused annual dismimución the amount of water and an increase in erosion and downstream sedimentation. thereby decreasing its transparency and clogging the marshes, ponds and streams during the rainy season. As a consequence of this areas are reduced and there is a depletion of the available water quality for aquatic life in general and stocks in particular. 11.3. "Sanitation >> or land reclamation. Globally there is a general belief that flooded lowlands or swamps are useless and dangerous to human health. In addition, periodic floods which also constitute a threat to the economic and social development of the people of these areas. This belief has its scientific basis due to many factors. between proliferation dfpteros (mosquitoes), potentially or actually transmit diseases such as malaria (malaria), yellow fever, dengue and other rules applicable to pets. With this in mind, governments have introduced the concept of "land reclamation • to define all activities in order to" restore • land for different uses: agriculture. Urbanlstico. Roads. Among others. Flooding in the Llanos of Venezuela have been considered as a natural disaster every to '\ o. response to this. different government agencies have developed and plan to build levees or dams to control the annual hydrological cycle. As has been recently proposed by Petts et al . (1989a, b) and Colonnello (1'990) isolation of rivers from its floodplain contributed significantly to produce changes in aquatic ecosystems and riparian forest in the temperate zones. now millions of dollars are spent on many countries in Europe to study and restore forests galerla of these plains and their aquatic environments. Consequently. unless extensive research show a different effect. in our tropical aquatic ecosystems, does not sound desirable spend large resources ( million). projects' land reclamation • if they would bring detrimental consequences to life in these flooded areas. Moreover, considering that in the tropics there is a close and dynamic interaction between forests and Galerla aquatic life (food, seed dispersal, shelter) (Cressa and Weibezahn 1971, Machado-AIIison 1990, Marrero et al., 1994). 11.4. Mlnerfa and oil exploration. Plains of Venezuela and Colombia are considered as one of the largest heavy oil reservoirs in the world. Figure 2 shows what is considered the area that could potentially be affected by the activities related to the exploration, drilling, extraction and transportation of crude oil to refineries. As we can see, almost all floodplain areas north sector Orinoco Basin can be disturbed by these actions induslriales. Though this activity is emerging on the plains of Venezuela, dai'los existing ecological consideration in some regions. These impacts are restricted to areas near • the · morichales • tables • Jos eastern Anzoategui and Monagas states and some scattered points experimental exploration and drilling in the low plains of Jos Anzoategui, Guarico and Apure. Regarding • • morichales we should indicate that they are very fragile which consist of highly transparent water bodies, usually dark ("Biackwaters •. Leenheer. 1980 Paolini, 1990; Sioli, 1984), very dilute acid and about its chemical components. these rivers run and open through layers of sand with very few nutrients and / or sediment in suspension. Water quality is very high and has very little buffering capacity · •. these aquatic systems are closely associated with riparino forest composed mainly of plants • moriche • (Mauriria flexuosa), which can shape plant communities of different structure and development according to physiognomy, age and soil conditions (Gonzalez, 1986, 1987).'s • • morichales as a comprehensive aquatic and terrestrial system, housing a plant and animal diversity (Antonio, 1989; González, 1986, 1987, Machado-AIIison et al. 1986; Machado-AIIison, 1987b; MagoLeccia, 1978; Ojasti., 1986, 1987, Perez. 1984: Marrero et al., 1994). According to the d ifferent technical reports (eg La Salle, 1983, Meneven-Car 33, 1983-1986) impacts are int imamente related activities such as: a. Construction of Spades and surveying roads and transportation of materials. These pathways usually cut Machado: The Estuaries 83 to the bodies of water in some places observed environmental degradation mainly due to sediment transport during the rainy season. b. extraction method crude, which uses extensive use of hot water injected into the well so as to separate the oil from the sand. waters used are generally taken deeper wells and with a high content of salts. After use and withdrawal oil. these wastewaters highly loaded with salts and dangerous chemicals such as! mad, and oil residue. were placed in tanks {loans) built adjacent to the well without any treatment to mitigate potential damage to aquatic life and wildlife . Runoff enter rivers through Jos percolation tanks. c. spills as a result of breaks in the pipe network, which traverse hundreds of kilometers and cover large areas of the plains. up to the refine located on the coast. few such accidents have occurred, causing serious dal \ local os and has been demonstrated the dangers associated mainly for wildlife. d. Accidents (explosion) of GQS Jos or natural wells and subsequent oil spill represent a potential risk to the biota of the region. Similar to the previous case, our country has some experience in these cases, such as the well blowout MUC-21, near Cantaura in Anzoategui State. All these activities can Jos cause damage: 11.4.1. Desertlflcaclón due to salinization of Jos • • morichales and gallery forests. As we have noted above, these systems are highly fragile due to poor capacity • • of the water buffer {Gonzalez, 1987). 11.4.2. Pollution of rivers by sewage percolation with oils, phenols and other hydrocarbon residues. heavy metals, hydrocarbons and other waste affect plant and animal life in these rivers. Evidence of this can be seen on: El Tigre , Tigrito, Caris, Pao, Moricha! Long and San Juan among others {CIDIAT, 1985). 11.4.3. Increased sedimentation in rivers. As we have indicated above, the rivers of moric ha! have very transparent and acidic waters. The Oil Industry. across the extensive and intensive construction pikes and roads looking for work related to the exploration, extraction and transportation of hydrocarbons has lncrgmgntaCio erosion surrounding highlands dcllnvc B4 ~ tigodor Tribune, Vol.1, No. 2, 1994 oeloa cuorpoa do water. So during the rainy oerfodo. large amounts of sedimemos are washed and / or transported to rivers causing a significant reduction in water quality and water affecting the environment. Many of these impacts are probably irreversible and / or recovery of ecosystems could take hundreds of the '\ os., for example. Sacramento River (California). has not recovered from impacts caused by hydraulic mining were developed nearly 120 ai ago \ os. Notwithstanding the foregoing there are plans for future development of the oil industry in what has been called the • Bituminous Strip .. in the plains of Venezuela. Though aquatic ecosystems in flood areas are somewhat different from the .. morichales • described above, in terms of water quality, buffer capacity • .. and biotic constituents, oil extensive farming without adequate standards or measures to mitigate the potential damage will produce unpredictable results ecological impacts on our aquatic environments . For now only looking pikes roads have been built and already they have caused some deterioration by increasing sediment pequei headers' \ os rlos the area in the High and Low Plains. Such increases in the volume of sediment hauled cause changes in water quality and affect aquatic biota as noted. Several methods of mitigation and control at high costs are being considered by the various subsidiaries of Pedevesa. however. should be implemented and jealously guarded if our environments water are preserved in these areas. 111. Recommendations and conclusions "When Charles Danvin reached South America to more than a century and a half, the resulwdos witnessed one of the most interesting biological processes of our dynamic planet. His observations led him to build the theory of evolution. " (AIIison and Machado Machado · · AIIison, / 992). We conclude this general discussion jactares affecting aquatic communities in general and in particular freshwater fish with some recommendations. The above quote shows us the enormous impact caused by our biodiversity in the past and the need to preserve our water systems for the future. This paper attempts to demonstrate the danger that human activities can cause to our aquatic flora and fauna. As scientists and in order to obtain a reasonable balance between development and conservation, we must first ask ourselves to where we know our aquatic ecosystems and as comportarlan (biotic and abiotically) to a possible disturbance, second. that have equal importance in biological, production, use by human populations: and finally, show (teach) people placed in different levels of decision, which must be achieved in order to properly manage these ecosystems to remain as a sustainable resource in the future. "The mMejo of rivers in the world ho approach requires 1111 / ísrico of ecosystems, which is parcialmeme cemrado on. ~ Riparian forest areas, but also involves managing fisheries 1111 yotrosfactores exogenous to the river" (Petersen et al. . 1987.). "Large dams and componemes reservarías imporrames is mamienen as the development process. Then gratules aquatic engineering projects can provide the basis paraw1 sustainable development as they have. Rido razonablemenre developed as part of overall plan w1 water capture; purposes and operations of these projects should be radically revised and secondary control measures should be incorporated into schemes sludge to maintain downstream ecosystems. these should be focused on particular maimenance ecotone zones • fas inundació11 plains and forest s11 coastal (Petts, 1990) .. These two quotes illustrate the importance of maintaining sustainable water resources regulations providing for the maintenance of related ecosystems. Numerous international p rograms such as EMINWA ("-sound Environmental Management of lnland Waters • ) promoted by the UNEP ("United Nations Environmental Programme ..) and the International Hydrological Programme of Unesco, have promoted recently. impetus in the study, education, training and institutional commitments required for the development of appropriate strategies and management water resources in humid tropical regions (Giadwell, 1989: Petts. 1990). Such programs should be used and implemented by government and private agencies, before any other dai '\ or is produced in our inland aquatic ecosystems. No Yet.'m in full agreement with Petts {1990) who concludes: three major developments are required to achieve a sustainable regulation of our rlos. Seeing the future.'s childish to believe that scientific management. could prevent the loss of any pane of ecosystem components. Natural systems are dynamic over time per_íodos short and long and this dynamism includes important random events. these unpredictable events. numerous degrees of freedom through which ecosystems respond to stress. along with our incomplete knowledge responses to river regulation mean that many dai '\ os and / or predictions about the effects of dams and / or channeling of rivers are precisely indeterminate or unknown. spite of this. scientific studies have an important role.'s also necessary to increase especially in studies related to the interface of hydrology, geomorphology and ecologla to. understand the vulnerability of ecosystems and to build on the scientific basis of secondary regulatory measures. Segundo. sustainable development requires a change in human behavior, resulting in an inappropriate manner of perceiving the water. as representing a natural resource capable of development costs (economic and environmental) much lower than other alternatives. This perception is based on four arguments: a) The water flowing into oceans cough is water lost. b) Are floodplains or wetlands are as unused land and represent a potential hazard to human health. e) Floods represent an unacceptable risk to life on land and agricultural land degradation. d) hydro-electric production is an environmentally conceivable energy development. As indicated by this study, this popular view or belief must be changed: seasonal or permanent flooding areas are a valuable component of ecosystems · aquatic inland waters that drain the oceans have significant value in the sustainable development of ecosystem processes and floods are necessary for the maintenance of its dynamics - such as reproduction and growth of aquatic life. The development of hydroelectric power is not automatically an environmentally acceptable and in some cases can cause extensive and dramatic environmental changes. Tercero. developing a sustainable resource must be based not on technological advances soto. scientific and social., but also in the improving coordination and effective management of water and land management. in many countries. especially the Third World Water developments have lacked the necessary coordination and administration and has been an overreliance on projects Machado: The Estuaries 85 engineering a large scale. Therefore it is necessary and urgent to establish programs that provide one m anejo efectivo y coordinado del ecosistema acuático dentro del concepto integral de gran cuenca (Orinoco pe). o basado en un contexto regional. Por otro lado. debemos concluir con recomendaciones similares con respecto a la exploración y explotación petrolera de la Faja Bituminosa (Llanos), el uso extensivo de pesticidas con propósitos agrícolas y el desarrollo de minería (oro pe) en las cabeceras del Orinoco. Más aún, estas actividades podrían causar daños severos - incluyendo algunos que ponen en peligro la salud humana - si ninguna atención es dada para minimizar o evitar los efectos de residuos peligrosos y modificación del régimen hidrológico a través del incremento de sedimentos en nuestros ríos. Los metales pesados tales como el mercurio y plomo, y compuestos organoclorados y organofosforados (pesticidas) introducidos en los cuerpos acuáticos, podrian encontrar su ruta a través de las cadenas tróficas hasta afectar al hombre, como ha sido demostrado en otros países y recientemente en Venezuela por Hernández de Barbarito y col. ( 1990). Estas actividades principalmente promovidas y -reguladas• por agencias gubernamentales debe estar sujeta a una estricta vigilancia y control. La aplicación de regulaciones y normativas internacionales (EPA pe). ampliamente conocidas en términos de porciones máximas permisibles de estas sustancias, deben se consideradas estrictamente. Más aún se deben incrementar los estudios sobre el efectos de estas sustancias en los ecosistemas acuáticos y terrestres tropicales. donde pudiera haber otros factores sinergísticos {pe temperatura) con estos contaminantes y como resultado obtener nuestros propios valores máximos en Venezuela. La recientemente aprobada .. LEY PENAL DEL AMBIENTE". nos da la base para promover estas investigaciones en conjunción con planes educativos con el propósito de evitar multas debido a dalles ocasionados al ambiente. Como conclusiones finales debo reconocer y tomar en cuenta las recomendaciones propuestas bajo el marco del «lnternational Symposium on Major Latln American Rlvers (SISGRIL)» (1990). La Cuencia del Orinoco y su Delta poseen una de las más extensas e importantes áreas de sabanas inundables. esteros y lagunas. Debido a esto el Rio Orinoco es catalogado como un sitio especial de toda el área neotropical (Hamilton & Lewis. 1990). Dado la incertidumbre científica. mucha atención debe ser colocada a la conservación de pocos, pero ampliamente bien seleccionados cuerpos de agua naturales y su cuenca. Sobre aquellos que ya poseen un sistema regulado (rGpres:as. diques. etc.). se deben incorporar medidas 86 Tribuna del Investigador, Vol.1, Nll 2, 1994 reoulatorias secundarias. especialmente aquellas que permitan aprovechar al máximo el manejo adecuado del recurso. revisión de los sistemas operativos y estrategias adecuadas de forma tal de minimizar el impacto ecológico. También. a medida que el desarrollo industrial e hidroeléctrico modifica aspectos de la Cuenca del Orinoco en el futuro. manejos adecuados de conservación de sus áreas inundables serán requeridas debido a sus particulares caracterlsticas geomorfológicas. hidrológicas y ecológicas. El desarrollo de la información cientffica. herramientas novedosas y actividades para la determinación de la disponibilidad del agua y tierra para mantener un recurso natural sustentable. debe ser un objetivo inmediato (Hamilton & Lewis. 1990; Petts. 1990). REFERENCIAS Antonio, M. (1989 ). lctiofaulUl del Río Moricha/ Largo ( Edo. Anzoátegui). TEG Escuela de Biología, UCV, Caracas. 100 p. Bastardo, H. (/981). Actividad microbiana durante la descomposición de gramíneas tropicales ensabanas inundables. ActaBiol. Venez., JI (2): 149 168. Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. Houghron Mi/fin. Carter, GS ( 1935). Respirarory• adaprarions of rhefishes ojrhe foresr warers wírh descriprions ojrhe accessory respirarían organs of Elecrrophorus elecrricusand P/ecosromus plecosromus. Joum. Linn. Soc. (@/.), 39:219-233. Correr, GS y L. Beadle( 1931). ThejaUIUlojthe swamps of rhe Paraguayan Chaco in relarion ro írs envíronment./1. Respiraroryadaprarionsin rhefishes. Joum. Linn. Soc. (Zcol.). 37:327-368. Colonnello, G. ( 1990 ). Elemenrosfisiográjicos y ecológicos de la cuenca del R. Orínoco y sus rebalses. lnterciencía, 15(6):476-485. Cressa, C. y F. Weibezalm. (1971). Materia vegetal alócrona de origen ribereño como alimento potencial para invertebrados en un río tropical. Acta Biol. Venez .• 9(2):135-164. O ID/A T. ( 1985). Descripción de las inreraccíones generadas por la actividad petrolera en su enromo. ( mimeo ). 56 p. Driedzic, WC Phleger, J. Fíelds, y C. F rench ( 1978). Alreration in energymetabolisms associared wirh rl~ trasitionfrom water ro air brearhing in fish. Can. Joum. Zool., 56:730-735. Garlik, RJ Bonavenlllra, J. Martín y O. Powers ( 1979). Funcrional swdies on the single componen/ hemoglobinfrom an amazon knifefish Stemopygus tnacrurus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 62A:201-205. Gladwe/1, J. ( 1989). Research. Educarion and Traíning, and lnstitutíona/ a"angements requíred for tire development of Hydrologic and Water ...... lntemational Bíol. Prog., Unesco. Gomez. A. y F. Monreiro ( 1955). Populatíon study of fishes in the reservoir of the Experimental Station ojBiologyand Físh Culture in Pirassungunga. Sao Pau/o. Rev. Biol. Mar. Va/p., 6:82-154. Gonzá/ez. V. ( 1986). Bases para el diseño de medidas de mitigación y control de las cuencas hidrográficas de los ríos Caris y Pao, Edo. Anzoátegui. Tomo IV Ecosistema Moricha/. UCVMeneven, Caracas, Venezuela. Gonzá/ez, V. (1987). LasMorichalesdelos/lanos orientales. Un enfoque ecológico. Ediciones Corpoven, Caracas- Venezuela. Gouldíng. M. (1979). Ecología da Pesca da Rfo Madeira. Const. Nac. Dese. Cient. Tec. Manarts, Amazonas. 172 p. Gou/díng, M. ( 1980). Tite Fishes and the Forest. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkley, California. Hamilton, S. y WLewis (1990). Physical characteristics of the fringing jloodplain oj the OrinocoRiver. Venezue/a./nterciencía, /5:491-500. Hamlett, W. ( 1992). «Reproductive Bíology of South American Vertebrares, . (WC Hamlett, Ed.) Springer Verlag: v. Hemández de Barbarito, M., Madrid, E. Arias, L. Bello, R. and G. Lara (1990). El Sistema de Riego Guárico: Diagnóstico Socio-Económico Ambiental. lnjonne CDCH-UCV. Caracas, (mimeo). Rolden •. M. ( 1963 ). The population ojjish in t:jry season poo/s oj Sokoto. Fishery Pub/. Colón. OFF HMSO, Landon, 19:1-58. Junk, W., P. Bailey, y RE Sparks. (1989). The use of amazonian jloodp.Jain under ecological perspective. lnterciencia. 14(6): 317-322. Kapetsky, J. ( 1974). Some ecological aspects oj the shallow lakes of the Magdalena floodplain, Colombia. N lntern. Symp. Trop. Eco/. Panamá. Kramer, D., C. Lindsey, C. Moodie y E. Stevens. ( 1978). The fishes and the aquatic environment ojtl~ Central Amazon Basin, With particular rejerence ro respíratory pattems. Canad. Joum. Zcol., 56:717- 729. Lagler. KJ Kapetsky y D. Stewart. ( 1971 ). Tire jisheries ofthe Kafue fÚus. Zambia, in relationto tire Kafue George dam. Univ. Michigan Tech. Rep. FAO. Roma, N•. FI:ZFIZAM. 11 Teclr. Rep. 1: J. 161. Lasso, C. y J. Castroviejo. (1992). Composition. aburulance and biomass ofthe bemlric jish fauna from the Guaritico Riverofa Venezuelanjloodplain. Amrals. Umnolog., 28( 1): 71-84. Leenheer, J. ( 1980). Origin and nature ofhumic subsrances in tire waters ofthe Amazon River Basin. Acta Amazonica, 10:513-526. Uem. C. ( 1969). Adaptative morphological f.eatures correlated with tire invation ofterrestrial habitats by amphibious fish orde r Synbranc/riformes. Amer. Zool. (Abstr.), 9:1147. Lépez, H. yA. Machado-Ailison ( 1975). Algunos aspectos del desarrollo y crecimiento de Loricaria laticeps (Osteicirtiryes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae). Acta Biol. Venez .. 9( 1):51·76. Lépez-Hemández. 1 .. M. Niño, L. Garcia, M. Sosa y F. Tovar( 1986a). Balance de elemmtosen un sabana inundable (Módulo Experimental de Manteca/, Edo. Apure, Venezuela). l. Entradas y salidas de material. Acta Cien t. Venez., 37:174-181. Lépez._Hemández. 1., M. Niño, L Garcfa, M. Sosa y F. Tovar ( 1986b ). Balance de elementos en una sabana immdable (Módulo Experimental de Manteca/, Edo. Apure, Venezuela). !l. Balance de entradas y salidas. Acta Cien/. Venez .. 37:182-184. Loubens, G. ( 1969 ). E tu de de certains peuplements icthyologiques par de peches a11 poi sin (la. nota). Cah ORSTOM Hydrob., 3:45-73. Lowe-McConne/1, R. (1964). The fisches of tire Rupun¡mi savamra district of British Guiana, Pt. l. Groupings offish species and effects ofthe seasonal cyclesonthefish. Joum. Unn. Sociery(Zaol.), 45:103- 144. Lowe·McConne/1, R. ( 1975). Fish Commwrities in Tropical F reslnvaters: Their Distribution, Ecology and Evolwion. Longman, London, 337 p. Loll'e·McConne/1, R. ( /984 ). Tire srams ofstudies on Soruh American freshwater /ood fishes. En: EvolutiotUJI)· ecology of Neorropica/ freslnvater fishes. T. Zaret ( Ed). W. Junk Pub/. ( Nederlands): 139· 156. Lowe-McConne/1 R. ( 1987). Ecological Studies in Tropical Fish Communilies. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge and NY, 382 p. Machado: Los Esteros 87 Machado·Allison, A. ( 1986). Aspectos sobre la historia natural del•curito» lloplostemwn liuorale ( Hanckock. 1928) (Siluriformes·Callicluhyidae) en el bajo llano de Venezuela: desarrollo, alimemación y distribución espacial. Acta Cien t. Venez. 37( 1 ):72- 78. Maclrado·Allison, A. ( 1987a). Lm Peces de los Llanos de Venezuela: Un ensayo sobre Stl historia natural. Universidad Central de Venezuela, 'CDCH, Caracas. 141 p. Machado-AIIison, A. ( 1987b). Los Peces de los ríos Caris y Pao Estado Anzoátegui. Clave Ilustrada para su Identificación. Ediciones Cotpoven, CAracas, Venez11ela. 66 p. Machado-AIIison, A. ( 1990). Ecología de los peces de las áreas immdables de los llanos de Venezuela. lnterciencia, 15(6):4/ 1-423. Maclrado-Allison, A. ( 1992). Larval Ecology of fish oftheOrinoco Basin, En: «Reproductive Biology ofSouthAmerican VertebraleS» (WC Iiamlell, Ed.) Springer Verlag: 45-59. Mac/rado-Ailison, A. ( 1993). Los Peces de los Uanos de Venezuela: Un ensayo sobre su historia natural. (2nd. Edición) Universidad Central de Venezuela, CDCH. Caracas, 147 p. Machado-AIIison, A. and C. García. ( 1986). Food lwbits and morphologica/ changes durirrg omogeny in three serrasalmin jish species oftlre Venezuelan jloodplains. Copeia 1:123-126. Machado-AIIison, A. and H. Lépez. ( 1975). Etapas del desarrollo de Loricariiclulrys typus ( Bleeker, 1894) (Osteichthyes, Silurifomres, Loricariidae). Acta Biol. Venez., 37( 1 ):93-119. Maclrado-Allison, A., C. Marrero )' O. Bm/1. ( 1986). Peces y bentos. En: Bases para el disetio de medidas de mitigación y control de las cuencas hidrográficas de los ríos Pao y Caris 1 Edo. Anzoátegui). IZT-Meneven, Vol. VI. (mimeo). Machado· Allison, A. and C. Machado-A IIison. (1992). Fauna: Habitantes del Eden. f:.'n: Imagen Atlas de Venezuela: Una Visión f:.'spacia l. Petróleos de Venezuela, SA Caracas: 56-57. Machado-AIIison. A. y R. Royera. ( 1986). Biomasa total y hábitos alimentarios en peces de un ecosistema riverino restringido en Venez.uela. Acta Cient. Venez. 37( 1 ): 94-95. Machado-AIIison and T. Zaret. ( 1984 ). Datos sobre la biología reproductiva tle Hop/ostemwn littorale ( Silurifom•es-Cal/icluhyidae) de Venezuela. Acta Cielll. Venez. . 35(21 ): 142-146. 88 Tribuno dellnveatigodor, Vol. 1, N2 2, 1994 Mago·Leccia. F. ( 1967). Noras prelimiiUlres sobre los peces de los llanos de Venezuela. Bol. S oc. Ven. Cienc. Nar., 27( 112):237·263. Mago-Leccia, F. ( 1970a). Usra de los Peces de Venezuela. Ofic. Nac. Pesca. MAC. Caracas, 283 pp. Mago·Leccia, F. ( 1970b). EsrttdiosprelimiiUlres sobre la ecología de los peces de los llanos de Venezuela. Acra Bio/. Venez. 7( 1):71-102. Mago-Leccia, F. ( 1978). Los Peces de Agua Dulce de Venezuela. Cuadernos Lagoven, Caracas, 38p. Mago-Leccia, F. ( 1983). Emomocorus gameroi una nueva especie de bagre auquenip1erido (Teleosrei, Silurifomes de Venezuela, incluyendo la descripción de su dimorfismo sexual secundario. Acra Biol. Venez., 11(4):215-239. Marre ro, C. ( 1990). Eswdio de los ltábiros alimenra~ios de los peces de la Familia Apteronotidae ( Pisces Gymnotiformes): un enfoque a través de su morfología bucal exrema y sus relaciones filogenéricas. Tesis Docrora/, Fac. Ciencias, UCV. Marrero, C., O. Casrillo y A. Macluuio-AIIison. ( /987). Primera cita del Género Traverella yno1as sobre la a/imemación de peces Gytimotifonnes en el río Apure, Biollania. Marre ro, C., A. Macltado-Allison. V. González y J. Velásquez. ( 1994). Ecología y Distribución de los peces de los moricha/es de los llanos orienrales de Venezuela. Biol/ania, (en prensa). Morwani, M. y Y. Kamvai ( 1970). Fislt and fislteries of tite cojferdammed righr channe/ of rlte Niger at Kainji. En: Kainji Lake Studies, 1: Ecology, ed. SA Visser, pp. 27-48. lbadan, Nigeria. Nico, L. y D. Taplrom. ( 1988). Food habirs of piran/zas in tite low llanos ofVenezuela. Biotropica 20(4): 311 -321. Ojasti. J. ( 1986). Basesparaeldiseñodemedidas de mitigación yconrrol de las cuencas hidrográficas de los ríos Caris y Pao, Edo. Anzoátegui. Tomo V Fau/Ul. UCV- Meneven, Carcas, Venezuela. ' Ojasri, J. ( 1987), Fauna del Sur de Anzoáregui. Corpoven, 38 p. Paolini, J. (1990 ). Carbono orgánico disuelto y ptJrticulado en grandes ríos de la América del Sur. lnrerciencia, 15 (6): 358-366. Pérez. LE ( 1984). Uso del Habitar por la Comunidad de Peces de un Río Tropical Asociado atmBosque. Mem. Soc. Cien. Nar. LaSa//e, /21: /43· 162. Pérez-Hemández, D. ( /983). Comportamiento lridrológico y sensibilidad ambiental de los moriclrales como sisremas fluviales. MARN R lnfonne Tecnico DGSIIN/T/1 27, Caracas· Venezuela. Petersen, R., B. Madsen, M. Wi/zbaclr, C. Magadza, A. Paarlberg, A. Kullberg )' K. Cwnmins. ( 1987). Srream managemenr: emerging global similariries. Ambio, 16( 4 ): 166-179. Pms. GE ( 1984). Jmpounded Rivers, Wiley: 326 pp. Petls, GE (1990). Tire role of ecorones in aquatic /andscape managemem. En: The' Roles od Ecotones in aquatic landscapes Partltenon Press, London Press. 227-261. Perts, GE, H. Moller andA. L. RottX. (1989a). Historical Clzange of LargeAI/uvial Rivers: Wesrem Europe. Wi/ey, UK 355 pp. Peus, GE, JGJmhof, B. Manny, J. Maherand S. Weisberg. ( 1989b). Management of flsh popu/ations in large rivers. Canadian Special Publicar ion of Fislteries andAquatic Scien. 106:429· 443. Prejs, A. y K Prejs. ( 1987). Feeding oftropical freshwater jishes: seasonality in resource availability and resource use. Oecologia, 71:397-404. Ramos. SS Danie/ewski y G. Colomine. ( 1981) Comribución a la ecología de los vertebrados acuáticos en esreros y bajíos de sabanas moduladas. Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nar. 198:79-103. Rangel, M. ( 1979 ). La construcción de embalses y su impacto ambiental sobre las pesquerías. DGII ME T/04, MARNR, Caracas. Rangel, M. ( 1980). El sistema Río Guanare y su efecto sobre las pesquerías. lnfonnes Técnicos MARNR, DGI/1T/84. 60 pp. Roberts, T. ( 1972). Ecology and fishes in the Amazon and Congo Basins. Bu/l. Mus. Comp. Zool., 143(2): 117-147. Srrenivasan, A. ( /972). Energy transfonnations tlzrouglz the primary productivity and fish producrion in some tropical freslnvater impoundmems and ponds. En:. Productivity Problems of Freshwater, Ed. Z. Kajak y A. Hillbricht-1/kowska, pp. 505-514. Varsovia: PWN Polish Scienrific Pub/. Sioli, H. (ed) (1984). The Amazon: Limnology and l..andscape Ecology of a Mighty River and irs Basin. Mong. Biol. Dordreclt Taphom, D. ( 1980). Report on theftsheries ofrhe Guanare Masparro Proyect. UNEUEZ, Guanare. Taphom, D. and G. Lilyestron, ( 1984 ). Los peces del Módulo «Fernando Corrales», Resultados Ictiológicos del Proyecto de Investigación del CONICJT PIMA-18. Rev. Unellez, Ciec. Tecn., 2(2): 55-85. Veillon, J. ( 1981 ). Las deforestaciones en la región de los llanos Occidentales de Venezuela ( 1950-1975 ). Rev. Forestal Venez.: 199-206. Machado: Los Esteros 89 Welcomme. R. ( 1979). Fisheries Ecology of Floodp/ain Rivers. London, Longman. 317 pp. Winemiller, K. ( 1989a). Pauerns ofvariation in lije history among SouthAmericanftshes in seasonal environments. Oecologia 81:225-241. Winemiller, K. ( 1989b). Onrogenetic di"et shifts and resource partitioning among piscivorous fishes in rhe Venezuelan llanos. Env. Biol. Fish .. 26:177- 199. Winemiller, K. ( 1990 ). Spatial and temporal variation in tropical ftsh trophic networks. Eco/. Monogr., 60(3):33 1-367. .LAS. LABORATORIOS 8/0QU/M/COS CA Reactiyos, Equipos y Material de laboratorio Distribuidores de: * Sigma Chemkal Co. * Aldrich Chemical Co. * Vector Laboratories lnc. * Dynatech lnc. * Bio Rad Laboratories. Av. El Cortijo Qta. Raimar 81 C Los Rosales - Caracas 1 040 Telefax: (02) 625379

2006-11-30 10:48:01 by Dove2

New drill press might not be as good

There are so many older units around that are SO MUCH BETTER than newer units, it's hard to go shopping like this. But if you have to buy new and don't want to risk Craftsman or Delta, some users have given good reviews to a couple of the Harbor Freight models - such as the ITEM 38142-6VGA, a drill press with umpteen speeds and a motor that lasts more than ten minutes.
BUY LOCAL is my advice. And figure on $200 minimum if you have to buy new. The Ryobis have terrible reps for runout and Delta quality control is slipping. So's Sears. Home Depot is backing off big Ridgid tools so check twice before investing a huge amount

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