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Major Industry Overview (a) software OEM software OEM service of economic development in India play an important role, not only to promote economic growth, it is India's star industry, attracting talented people are rushing to the country. According to the Indian Software Association (NASSCOM) estimates , 2007-2008 Software OEM production value over 64 billion U.S. dollars, representing growth of 33 percent last year, of which exports $ 40.8 billion. To 2010 output will more than 73 billion U.S. dollars, of which exports will reach $ 60 billion. India is currently the world's second largest software exporter, with exports accounting for the global offshore software foundry market 65-70%. Software OEM output accounted India GDP reached 5.5%, the contribution to economic growth in the 3.3 to 3.9 percent between. Including information consulting services (IT-enable business Service, ITES) and enterprise manufacturing services (Business Processing Outsourcing, BPO) is the software industry in recent years on behalf of the fastest growing businesses. Existing Software behalf of the industry in India more than 3, 000, employing a staff of nearly 200 million people; among the top 15 largest software company arranged 70% of the ITES business, nearly 200 BPO industry arranged 70% of BPO business. Business content from the initial drafting, coding, customer service, marketing surveys and other services requires a lot of manpower handicraft, development consulting services to the project, such as finance, accounting, medical insurance and access management, CRM system implementation ERM cum cum operations. ITES principal activities include custom application development, and maintenance (CADM), system integration services, IT consulting services, application management, hardware management services, software testing and network building management services. In a solid customer service to interact with the market based on the behalf of the industry in India R & D, market research, advertising and other marketing to the end, the whole process of information production system, can single-handedly. According to the 2006-07 statistics, ITES output value of 31.4 billion U.S. dollars, of which exports amounted information services $ 18 billion, the annual growth rate of 35.5%; Indian domestic market size of $ 8.2 billion, the annual growth rate of 23%. According to NASSCOM estimates , 2007-2008 Indian ITES output will more than 49 billion U.S. dollars, representing growth of 56% over the same period last year. With the rising personnel costs, factory and office set-up costs and increasing competition at home and abroad, large Indian software companies such as TCS, Wipro, Infosys, Satyam, HCL have been made towards the development of systems integration services, such as IT strategy consulting and professional advisory services (Knowledge Processing Outsourcing , KPO) and other services to enhance industrial competitiveness. Cost considerations, the multinationals to outsource to India, generally can save about 25 to 50% of the cost. Many multinational companies to further establish a foothold in India, such as IBM has seven locations in India, technology companies such as Intel, Oracle, HP, Microsoft and GE Capital, etc., have also set up R & D centers in India. BPO service area is divided into four main categories: Financial and Accounting, Customer Service (Customer Interaction Services), human resource management and project services (niche business services); recent years to develop Internet marketing, billing services, database marketing, trading document management, telemarketing, tax services and biotechnology research and development business. Major players include: Genpact, WNS Global Services, Transworks Information Services, IBM-Daksh, TCS BPO, Wipro BPO, Firstsource Solutions, HCL BPO, Infosys BPO, EXL Service Holdings, Citigroup Global Services, Aegis BPO Services, HTMT Global Solutions, 24 / 7 Customer and Mphasis BPO. 2006-07 BPO value of $ 9.5 billion, of which exports $ 8.4 billion, the domestic market size of $ 1.1 billion, estimated in the 2007-08 annual output will reach 11 billion U.S. dollars. With the industrial scale, on behalf of the Indian software industry talent shortage is worsening, the existing two million workers, 75% were educated in high school; coupled with the lack of educational resources in India, university or experienced mechanics who lack information; industry should make their own training required talent, such as turnover largest Tata Consultancy Services Trivandrum in southern India established a large training center, the second largest in the southern Mysore Infosys Technologiesy also set up training centers. Equipment and personnel in response to hardware costs continue to rise, on behalf of the Indian software industry, in addition to the base moved two cities also began the business subcontracting to foreign countries, such as in the Philippines, China to establish a foothold on the one hand to meet the manpower needs, On the one hand will move to low-wage low-income foundry business district. Indian software OEM business more than 7 percent from the United States, faced with sluggish U.S. economy, the dollar cum double pressure, mainly behalf of the industry, have developed markets in other countries, and has effectively reduced the proportion of its turnover U.S. market, such as Satyam cum Mindtree U.S. market share accounted for 65%, Infosys was 63%, Wipro was 60%, KPIT is 60%, TCS and HCL Tech was 56% to 56%. On behalf of the booming software industry also faces two external challenges, namely the United States, Britain, Germany and the domestic outsourcing industry requires legislation prohibiting voice continued, and the other is the emergence of new competitors, including China, the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, Poland and Hungary and other countries, will affect India's software-generation industry. (Two) Indian biotech industry biotechnology industry developed rapidly, nearly three years an annual 35-40 percent rate of growth prospects in Asia's third largest national biotech industry output value accounted for 2% of the global market. 2006-07 with an annual output value of 2 billion U.S. $ 80 million, is expected to reach $ 5 billion in 2010, the direct and indirect will employ more than one million employees. India's biotech industry including biotech, agriculture, information, equipment and services business, after 25 years of development has begun outcomes such as vaccine production ranks first in the world in test reagents, enzymes and bio-pesticides and other product development great potential; addition bollworm resistance to Bt cotton cultivation in India (Bt cotton) area of ​​6, 000, 000 hectares, the scale crown in the world, India has developed and another massive planting of genetically modified crops such as rice, wheat, beans, and other eagles. India's existing 325 local biotech industry, of which nearly 40% in biotech research and development, such as the Genome Valley in Hyderabad Biotechnology Park, the amount of investment reached 1.2 billion U.S. $ 40 million, in the treatment of cancer diabetes drug development cum cum production. India has a first-class R & D personnel, world-class software information industry, a wide variety of sea animals and plants, thriving generic drug industry and the government's strong support for the development of lower production costs, coupled with 1.1 billion population, family medical records complete, has become the world's leading pharmaceutical research and development, testing and manufacturing base, and attract more than 200 international biotech industry to establish a foothold in India. India's biopharmaceutical industry still generic manufacturers led many companies through international cooperation and technology licensing, and strengthen the biotech product development and manufacturing capabilities. India, the more production-scale pharmaceutical manufacturers around 250-300, where the top 50 manufacturers and more are developing new drugs capable, major industry players, including Ranbaxy, Cipla, Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Lubin, Nicolas Piramal, Aurobindo Pharma, Cadila Pharmaceticals, Sun Pharma, Wockhardt Ltd and Aventis Pharma. Indian pharmaceutical industry annual output value of about $ 10 billion, ranking No. 13, such as to yield words, the first four in the world, after nearly 30 years of development, whether it is technology, pharmaceutical quality and variety, have reached a certain level from simple to more complex headache medicine antibiotics and cardiovascular drugs, are able to manufacture, the production of drugs to fight to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the number of cases after the United States company. Indian pharmaceutical industry the rise in the production of generic drugs, the production of generic drugs accounted for 22% of the global market. Department of copying patented generic drug has expired chemical composition, without the burden of high development costs, so the price is lower than the patented drugs. The Government of India in 1970 years passed patent law provisions, medicines can be patented manufacturing process, are not patented drugs themselves, so the Indian pharmaceutical companies often use different processes to produce unexpired patent drugs, or through the publication of patent drug information drug development, production and product marketing at home and abroad is the purpose of accumulating profits and enhance pharmaceutical technology. In the cheap manpower and equipment, supported by Indian pharmaceutical companies to lower costs and produce most of the drugs. Since January 1, 2005, the Indian government has admitted foreign drug patents, shall not manufacture, sell and export unauthorized drugs. Yuan Indian pharmaceutical industry began to develop, produce patented drugs, transnational corporations and therefore actively enter India's large biopharmaceutical market, and most of India's leading biopharmaceutical industries. Currently 95% of India's domestic constraints can be required from the drugs, including the latest anti-cancer drugs, cardiovascular drugs, such as anti-HIV drugs. Import of medicines in addition to a handful subject to prior application for an import license (Import Licence), most are completely free imports. In 1995 the Indian government to relax the Drug Price Control Regulations (Drug Price Control Order), the price was reduced to 76 kinds of controlled substances, to the 2002 limit is more down to only 38 kinds of drug prices, pharmaceutical companies and there are more profits into technology upgrading and research and development. Foreign investment in the Indian pharmaceutical industry can be a sole proprietorship, such as the well-known research institutions such as outsourcing Novartis, Johnson & Johnson, Pliva, Astra Zeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb and GlaxoSmithKline have been operating in India. Indian companies have also through international cooperation and technology licensing, and strengthen the biotech product development and manufacturing capabilities. Indian Pharmaceutical been exported worldwide in 65 countries and exports worth about $ 3.8 billion, an average annual growth of 22.7%, mainly exported drugs, including Sulpher-methoxazole, amoxycillin, ampicillin, menthol and ibuprofen, etc. Main export areas for the United States, Canada, Germany, France and other Latin American countries. In order to encourage the export of drugs, the Indian government and the establishment of a dedicated counseling units Export Promotion Cell, to assist firms expanding sales in overseas markets, is expected in 2010 India's pharmaceutical exports will reach $ 22.4 billion. India's domestic drug consumption market size of about $ 5.3 billion, the relevant industry a total of about 20, 000 more than 8 percent of the domestic market in India to provide the necessary raw materials, intermediates, synthetic drugs, chemicals, tablets, capsules, oral preparations. (Three) telecommunications industry's give thanks to economic growth, India's telecommunications industry continued to grow in recent years, mainly due to mobile phones, until the end of February 2008, the number of telephone subscribers reached 200 million 7, 570 million, 23.89% of telephone penetration, including urban areas 61.25%, 8.35% rural areas, urban-rural gap significantly. Average monthly new mobile phone subscribers 8, 000, 000, the annual revenues of over 26 billion U.S. dollars communications. Since India since liberalization of telecommunications, private carriers play an increasingly significant role, private telephone phone users accounted for the total number of users from the 2003 rate of 20.9%, rapidly grew to 72.4% in 2007. In business growth, the private operators in 2007 66% growth, ahead of the public carrier's 16.88%. However, due to failure of private operators to invest large sums in basic telecommunications construction, causing 98% of the users of its Department of wireless phone users. India in mid-1990, the state-owned telecommunications company to monopolize the market cut into BSNL, MTNL and VSNL and other three companies. India's major cable phone service by BSNL, MTNL, Barati Tele-Ventures and Tata Teleservices. Because of poor infrastructure in India 60, 000 6, 822 points in rural areas, there are still 10, 000 4, 480 villages have yet to lay telephone lines, coupled with sustained reductions in mobile phone tariffs, operators continue to introduce preferential tariff scheme, and has erected 120 000 5, 000 base stations (before 2010 will increase to 300, 000), to promote sustained and rapid growth of mobile phone users; nearly four annual compound growth rate of 87.7 percent, the number of mobile phone users accounted for the number of telephone subscribers in March 2002 by the ratio of 14.85%, rapid growth until the end of February 2008 to 85.74%. India's mobile phone were used GSM and CDMA systems, GSM systems major industry players, including Bharti Airtel, BSNL, Vodafone and Idea; CDMA systems major industry players including Reliance and Tata; mobile phone is mainly by Nokia, Motorola, Samsung, LGE, Sony Ericsson five international manufacturers supply. Mobile phone companies such as the operation of the whole Indian market, set up at least 10, 000 base stations, each base station to cost 2.5 million rupees erection estimates need to invest 25 billion rupees. Part of the industry such as Bharti Airtel Reliance Communications has leased its cum base station to other operators, the average monthly rent for each base station 20 000 5, 000 rupees. Until 2007, the Indian Internet users has more than 9.69 million, 3.02 million broadband Internet subscribers, the Indian government planning in the year 2010 another Internet user cum broadband subscribers increased to $ 4, 000 million and $ 20 million households, the other will be rolling out broadband internet to all secondary schools, public hospitals and agricultural distribution center. India's first 11 years in the 2007-2012 five-year economic plan will add 200 million phone users in rural, rural telephone penetration rate will increase to 25%. Another will be the end of 2008 in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai and other four metropolitan handle mobile phone numbers portable business that allows mobile phone users in the replacement carriers to retain the original number. Cum on 3G wireless broadband services have been open. India will invest $ 25 billion by 2010, the number of telephone subscribers increased to 500 million, revenues are expected to communicate more than 52.5 billion U.S. dollars annually. Also in 2015 invested $ 30 billion, the telephone number of users increased to 800 million, revenues are expected to communicate more than 84 billion U.S. dollars annually. Attracted by the huge business opportunities, telecommunications services market is highly competitive, until the end of 2007, the Indian government has issued licenses dual system Telecom (CDMA and GSM) 97 sheets, basic services license 2, mobile phone license 60, voice services license 17 public access mobile radio license 41, domestic long distance calls and International phone licenses 20 licenses 13. Another 175 companies registered with the Government of India to become the first class telecom infrastructure equipment suppliers (Infrastructure Provider Category - I, IP-I), can supply fiber line equipment and base stations and other equipment to the operator. In recent years, the rapid development of the Indian telecom industry has an annual turnover of 2, 365 in 2006-07, $ 960 million rupees (about $ 6 billion), the annual growth rate of 32.67%. Many multinational companies to establish a foothold in India, such as Ericsson in Jaipur factories manufacturing GSM radio base station, grouped in Chennai research and development center-cum-Gurgaon; Elcoteq manufacturing factories in Bang Jialuo phones; Nokia manufacturing factories in Chennai phone; LG GSM mobile phone manufacturers to set up factories in Pune; Flextronics setting up special economic zones in Chennai SEZ; Other manufacturers, including Motorola, Foxconn, Aspocomp, Salcomp, Samsung, Siemens, CISCO, Perlos and Solectron also have set up factories in India, all foreign investment amount of more than 1.5 billion U.S. dollars. India's use of communications network equipment parts imported from abroad, such as switches with Alcatel, Siemens, Fujitsu, AT & T, GPT, Ericsson and NEC and other manufacturers products, in addition to Lucent, Fujitsu and Siemens are also produced in India communications transmission equipment. As India's large population, vast communication needs, communication products imported addition to mobile phones, others such as telephones, answering machines, fax machines, modems and public phones, there are considerable room for growth. (Four) Indian electronics industry, electronic industry, including industrial electronics, computers, communications, broadcasting, entertainment electronics and other electronic parts and hardware manufacturers, including information, communications products, especially cause for attention, and in 2005 the Indian electronics industry is very important turning point, followed in India because of the WTO Information Protocol (IT Agreement, ITA) implementation of 217 ICT products tariff-free (ITA Department 1996 Ministerial Conference held in Singapore on the formulation, that States parties due in 2000 will be reduced IT products zero tariffs, India subsequently joined the ITA, but additional phases sunset clause fulfill its commitments, ITA agreements 217 products, to 2004, only the implementation of the first stage 170, in 2005 after the implementation of the remaining 47), including computers, communications equipment (mobile phones, etc.). The annual Nokia in market demand, tariff-free imports of parts and components, the finished handset sales to Special Economic Zones (SEZ) are also outside the duty-free, plus SEZ provides five-year tax incentive, the first established in Chennai NOKIA SEZ, and in 2006 operation was completed, the first wave of the electronics industry in India detonated investment boom, attracting Motorola, Dell stationed in Indian industry had almost blank electronics industry, suddenly became the Indians in 2005, the pride and boast will be the center of the global electronics industry . According to Indian government statistics, from 2005 to 2008, foreign investment in India's information and communications industry, a total investment of 17.0 billion, including communications equipment manufacturing accounted for $ 1.5 billion. One of India's mobile phone industry Milestones  China's Huawei Technologies (Huawei) - application for the establishment in Bang Jialuo Mobile base stations and central office equipment manufacturing center (the Indian government on national security grounds not to issue a license, the case has dragged on for six years)  Ericsson-Mobile base station set up in Jaipur and central office equipment manufacturing center (2005)  Alcatel-up at Rai Baraeli Mobile base stations and central office equipment manufacturing center (2005)  LG-up phone lines in Pune (June 2005), and in Bang Jialuo by the Indian company Elcoteq's OEM handset and base station (April 2005)  Nokia-up production lines in Chennai (2006)  Foxconn-up mobile phone OEM in Chennai Production Line (2006)  Flextronics-in Chennai set up mobile phone OEM production line (2006)  Jabil in Chennai set up mobile phone OEM production line (2006)  Motorola-in Chennai set up phone lines (2007 commenced by an external structural engineering estimate the current progress of approximately 30%)  Samsung-in Chennai set up phone lines (2007 start)  Sony-Ericsson in Chennai set up mobile phone OEM production line (2007 to commence the preparation)  BYD in Chennai set up mobile phone parts production line (2007 September) since 2007, Nokia Chennai plant has a monthly production capacity of more than 1, 000 ten thousand, in 2009 will be expanded to 2, 000 ten thousand / month, when Nokia Chennai plant will become the world's largest mobile phone manufacturers (Nokia China is currently Beijing factory), while in 2010 India will become the world's second largest mobile phone market. If you observe the development of India and China, two world powers is clearly in the opposite direction, India started in software, software services current annual output value of up to $ 20 billion, initially due to cheap labor makes today's pomp and attract the world's leading software industry such as Microsoft and other international companies to establish R & D centers, rising wages, although late, but economies of scale factors, it can maintain the status does not fall. The Chinese in Taiwan, foreign into the hardware manufacturing company, is currently also actively towards the direction of integration software, if the hardware industry in India continued development in these two countries in the Indian IT software and hardware of the competition, will inevitably there is a fierce battle. In the classification, consumer electronics and home appliances are durable goods, but the scope is very extensive and entertainment electronics such as televisions, MP3, mobile phone, computer, CD stereo, compared consumer electronics under the sub-categories. Entertainment Electronics 2004-2005 GDP of 1, 680 billion rupees ($ 4.2 billion), an annual growth rate of 10%, the main items to CRT color TV, tape players, CD stereo, and even black and white television based. In terms of GDP, the entertainment electronics in the electronics hardware industry in India's third-largest production projects and color TV for entertainment electronics major production items. (Five) machine tool industry output value of machine tools in India in 2006-07 to approximately $ 500 million, representing a growth of 15% over the same period last year, ranking 19th in the world, accounting for 0.5% of global output, the annual export amount of $ 30 million, representing 32% growth over the same period, total exports of 8, 451 units, mainly exported to Italy, Canada, Germany and the United States. Although the Indian machine tool industry's share of global proportion is still low, but it is one of the fastest growing countries. Indian machine tool industry will grow so fast in recent years, mainly due to manufacturing needs, especially motor vehicles and parts industry relies on machine tools is relatively high, and thus promote the growth of the entire industry. The entire automotive industry accounts for about 60% of the machine tool utilization. In addition, nearly 60% of the textile machinery relies on imports, total imports accounted for 13.8% of total imports of machinery. Other capital equipment but also because of industrial development and stimulate demand, such as the prime mover (13.5%), construction machinery (7.1%), compressors and exhausters (6.8%), metal-cutting machine tools (5.9%), and other industries such as food processing, woodworking machinery, machine tools are also the main purpose. India's overall outstanding performance machine tool industry, the production of machine tools has been an internationally competitive. India, however, still the majority of machine tools imported from abroad. 2006-07 market demand for machine tools in India approximately $ 1.9 billion, of which $ 500 million by the local manufacturers supply, imports of $ 1.4 billion. Next two years, the amount of investment in the industry will reach $ 1 billion. India's domestic production of machine tool manufacturers are among SMEs, mainly distributed in the Indian machine tool industry throughout North and South, including the state of Maharashtra, Mumbai and Pune, Punjab State Batala, Jullunder and Ludiana, Gujarat State Ahmeda, Baroda, Jamnagar, Rajkot and Surendranagar , Tamil Nadu State Coimbatore and Chennai, Karnataka State Bangalore and other places. Nearly 7 percent of India's domestic machine tool system consists of 10 large companies in manufacturing, including Hindustan Machine Tools (HMT), BFW, ACE Designer, Jyoti, Batliboi, LMW, Lokesh Machine Tools, TAL Manufacturing Solutions, Heavy Engineering Corporation, which owns 40 HMT % market share. Other international companies, such as Makino, DMG, Yamazaki, Daewood, Cummins and Siemens, are also in India with agents, technology centers or assembly plant. 2006-07 India's total production value of CNC machine types has reached 300 million U.S. dollars, accounting for 57% of the total value of machine tools, representing growth of 27% over the same period last year, production totaled 5, 344 units, of which Lathes, Machining Centers and EDMs together accounted for 83% . The next 3-5 years, CNC machine types demand will grow 8-10%. Machine tool imports in 2006-07 20, 000 6, 077 units, the amount of $ 1.4 billion, representing a growth of 37.6 percent over the same period last year. Wherein the metal cutting machine is mainly imported aircraft, a total of 20, 000 1, 816 units, 4, 612 units, including lathes, grinders 3, 967 units, 1, 947 units machining centers, drilling 1, 416 units. The import metal forming machine, automatic presses up places, followed by other metal forming machine. Source of imports to the United States as the largest, accounting for total imports 15-18 percent, followed by Germany, Japan, China, Taiwan and South Korea. India ranked 9th largest of the machine tool export market. Machine tools in significantly reducing import tariffs, as well as opening up foreign investment in auto parts industry, the Indian demand for machine tools in Taiwan soared, and because of the resulting lower prices of products Yinren more sensitive to China's machinery products and whole plant equipment, good quality , the price is very competitive, very popular in India, has become India's main export products. (Six) steam locomotive, Parts and Accessories Industry According to McKinsey (McKinsey Global Institute) reports that Indian nationals continued to increase the purchasing power of the middle class has reached 200 million, 600, 000 in annual household income of $ 45, 000 or more. The continued growth of the middle class, on means of transport, including two-wheelers, tricycles and four-wheeled vehicle demand will also increase. In recent years, the Indian automobile industry begin with two-digit annual rate of growth, India is now the world's second sophomore wheeler market, the fourth largest commercial vehicle market and the 11th largest passenger car market. 2010 is expected to reach two million, three million by 2015, then the point of view, then India will become the world's fifth largest car producer. Strong domestic market and the government provides generous investment conditions to attract many international companies to set up factories in India. Currently stationed in India, including multinationals: General Motor and Ford, BMW and DaimlerChrysler AG, Renault, Suzuki, Toyota, Honda, and South Korea Hyundai. India's technology base and cheap labor is an international depot set up production centers in India, the main reason. 10 years, the Indian car market through many changes, Hyundai has become India's second largest depot, the first largest export car brand. Hyundai Motor India, is known as "Detroit, " said the factories in Chennai, India will be the next major production, manufacturing, R & D base. General Motor has set up R & D centers in India. In 2006, the company's sales grew 16%. Annual production capacity is expected to point 200 000 2010, a market share of 10%. Global steam locomotive spare parts market is about 1, 800 billion U.S. dollars. With the auto industry, auto parts industry in India is gradually warming. Based Indian Automobile Manufacturers Association data show motorcycle parts , 2006-2007 steam locomotive produced in India worth about $ 15 billion, of which exports amounted to $ 2.8 billion. India's domestic market growth rate of about 17% is expected in 2010 will have around $ 20 billion. India's booming steam locomotive spare parts reasons, nothing more than increased demand for transport, another reason that the growth of the aftermarket and service, as well as international companies focused outsourcing to lower-cost development of the Chinese nation. In recent years, the international automobile factory steering parts manufacturers in India contact set spare parts , 2008-2009 steam locomotive spare parts market in India production capacity expansion $ 5.9 billion, the next seven years is expected to reach $ 20 billion goal. The cost of production of automotive parts in India, 10-20% lower than in the U.S., half lower than in Europe. India has the advantage of including professional technicians and complete production lines and vast domestic market. In 2000-05 the industry growth rate of nearly 20%, plus 2006-14 estimated annual growth rate of 17 percent, by 2025, India will become the world's top five largest steam locomotive spare parts supplier. Now many North American and European regions by India's auto parts manufacturing, which supplies GM, Ford and Chrysler and other transnational brand automobile plant components, auto parts of India for 7 percent of total export value. By regions, the Indian auto parts industry in Europe is the largest export region, the proportion of exports in 2006 amounted to 32.4%. Georgia's second largest export region, accounting for 20%, the third much North America, accounting for 10.8%. 2006-7, India's total export value of auto parts nearly $ 3 billion, representing a growth of 17% over the same period last year; export parts to "Engine Components" category for the most important projects, 31% of total exports; "drive shaft and steering wheel "and" body parts ", followed by, respectively, representing 19% of total exports and 12%. As can be seen from the above data, the Indian exports of automotive spare parts, after-sales service parts market had been mainly converted into OEM / Tier 1 parts plant. Since 2000, India's auto parts industry, the cumulative amount of investment totaled $ 400 million, the amount of direct investment more than 500 million U.S. $ 30 million in the next five years, will attract more than $ 5 billion investment from India in the global automotive aftermarket share from the existing 0.4% to 4%. Many large one suppliers, including Delphi, Cummins, Navistar, Caterpillar, Electrolux, Visteon, Bosch, etc., are in India, international procurement center (IPO). In addition to international companies competing investments, local enterprises nor to let, for example, Bharat Forge in Pune investment of nearly 100 million U.S. $ 30 million production line is expected to increase production capacity to 240, 000 tons; addition, Amtek Auto also expanded from the original 30, 000 tons of production capacity increased to 70, 000 tons; Sona Koyo plans to produce 3 million manual steering gears, 500, 000 hydraulic assisted steering systems and 250, 000 electric power steering system, etc.; Rico Auto will invest U.S. $ 23 million increase; Minda Industries will Kyoraku with Japan signed $ 400 million technical cooperation agreement, a third production of injection molded parts. In addition, Gabriel India and the United States signed a supply agreement Arvin Meritor, for the latter to provide two million shock absorbers in the amount of $ 12 million to $ 15 million. To assist the development of automobile industry, the Indian government set up National Automotive Testing and R & D Center Program (NATRIP), the amount of investment of about 300 million U.S. $ 80 million to help the industry achieve world safety regulations, emissions testing standards. In addition, in 2007 to play a more comprehensive plan to promote the 10-year automotive industry (Automotive Mission Plan), on favorable terms, including on the scale of more than 100 million $ 25 million automotive investment projects, providing 10% off annual income tax, tariff reductions and other concessions. The other car manufacturers may also obtain a stable, high quality and cheap electricity, reduce energy consumption costs. This project will build India as global auto and parts production center. In the next decade, the Indian automobile industry will need to invest 350 to 40, 000, 000, 000 U.S. dollars, the final output will reach 1, 450 billion U.S. dollars, to create 25 million jobs. In fact, the Indian auto parts market a promising prospect, but now faced with internal and external bottleneck. As the proportion of export sales increased and by the U.S. subprime crisis, the rupee appreciation and the impact of competition from cheap Chinese, the Indian auto parts industry is nothing more than a big blow. , 2006-Based data show that seven-year GDP growth of India's auto parts exports by 16% over the same period total imports grew at double the number. Many local Indian steam locomotive spare parts manufacturers face profit plummeted, has begun actively seeking cooperation opportunities with international companies, such as Amtek, M & M, Bharat Forge, Sona, Rico and so on. On the other hand, the Indian government cut tariffs from 1 January 2008 onwards cancel Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, a total of 4, 536 tariff items imported products. Imported from Bangladesh and other four countries and parts of CKD steam locomotive tariffs, from the original 10% to zero tariffs, imports from Pakistan and Sri Lanka in the same tariffs on goods, but also from the original 12.5% ​​was reduced to 10%. (Seven) financial support India's economic boom in recent years, the factors, in addition to a thriving domestic demand, the financial industry is one of the reasons, the financial industry is a country's economy, in turn, cash flow without problems, economic active, then the multiplier effects appear, at present India more than 110 banks around the country, including public private banks from banks about half and half, and now a thriving situation is different, prior to 1991, India's banks issuing letters of credit are not to be accepted by the international community, Unless accompanied by an Indian central bank (Reserve Bank of India) are issued proof of confirmation. 2008 India's short-day deposit rate of 5.5% ~ 6.0%, long-day deposit rate is 6.0% ~ 6.5%, housing loan interest rates of 9.75% to 11.75%, and the difference between lending and deposit rates of about 5%, capital cost is quite expensive. But also due to higher interest rates, but also to attract international capital inflows, in 2007 ~ 2008, the first eight months to attract foreign non-Indian residents of about $ 13 billion of international flows deposits. And the high cost of capital, on the one hand, although lower business investment will, but also created a highly profitable financial services industry in India. Indian banks mainly lending growth and earnings from fee increases, while the people of India in recent years, the emergence of financial spending power, but also inject the Indian financial sector earnings growth. India's domestic banking system overall credit scale, to June 21, 2005 ended as 4, 450 billion U.S. dollars, to June 20, 2006 only reached U.S. $ 523 billion, growing 14.4%, confirming India's booming financial markets. For bank property point of view, state-owned banks (Nationalized Banks) to total credit ratio was 47.8%, while foreign banks (Private Foreign Banks) 6.7%, state-owned bank (State Bank of India and its Associate Banks) 23.8%, the remaining 18.9 % for domestic private banks (Private Indian Banks). India has always been at the end of the domestic private banks Retail Financial has an absolute advantage, ICICI and HDFC two banks in recent years have grown at a rate of 70%, the end of the financial scale, estimated in 2010 will be 18% compound annual growth rate reached 16.5 billion U.S. dollars in the market. Estimated 2011 population structure accounted for the largest ratio of 18.3% aged 20-29, younger consumer population, the middle class increases, wages also followed steady growth, followed by 30 to 39 years of 15.2%. India's rapid economic growth, wage growth in 2007 reached 13 percent, which is significantly higher than the inflation rate of 6.7%, an increase of the magnitude of the United States, Britain, Japan and other 70 countries ranked first. Become more wealthy, corporate reinvestment, corporate loans increased, the increase in employment, India rich people's money to spend to buy a car, housing home production, personal loans also jumped, Finance Minister of India more optimistic forecast 2008 4 January to March 2009, bank credit will grow 32%. List of State Bank of India Bank (Nationalized Banks) 1.Allahabad Bank 2.Andhra Bank 3.Bank of Baroda 4.Bank of India 5.Bank of Maharashtra 6.Canara Bank (India's largest state-owned banks) 7.Central Bank of India 8. Corporation Bank 9.Dena Bank 10.Indian Bank 11.Indian Overseas Bank 12.Oriental Bank of Commerce 13.Punjab and Sind Bank 14.Punjab National Bank 15.Syndicate Bank 16.Union Bank of India 17.United Bank of India 18. United Commercial Bank 19.Vijaya Bank owned bank (State Bank of India and its Associate Banks) 1.State Bank of India (in India's largest state-owned bank) 2.State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur 3.State Bank of Hyderabad 4. State Bank of Indore 5.State Bank of Mysore 6.State Bank of Patiala 7.State Bank of Saurashtra 8.State Bank of Travancore private banks (Private Indian Banks) 1.Bank of Rajasthan Ltd 2.Bharat Overseas Bank Ltd 3.Catholic Syrian Bank Ltd 4.Federal Bank Ltd 5.Dhanalakshmi Bank Ltd 6.Jammu & Kashmir Bank Ltd 7.Karnataka Bank Ltd 8.Karur Vysya Bank Ltd 9.City Union Bank Ltd 10.Lakshmi Vilas Bank Ltd 11.Nainital Bank Ltd 12.Ratnakar Bank Ltd 13.Sangli Bank Ltd 14.South Indian Bank Ltd 15.Tamilnad Mercantile Bank Ltd 16.United Western Bank Ltd 17.ING Vysya Bank Ltd 18.Lord Krishna Bank Ltd 19.ICICI Bank Ltd (India's largest private banks) 20 . UTI Bank Ltd 21.Indus Ind Bank Ltd 22.Yes Bank Ltd 23.SBI commercial and International Bank Ltd 24.Ganesh Bank of Kurundwad Ltd 25.Centurion Bank of Punjab 26.HDFC Bank Ltd (India's second largest private bank) 27.Development Credit Bank Ltd 28.Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd (India's third largest private bank) 29.Industrial Development Bank of India Ltd foreign private banks (Private Foreign Banks) 1.ABN AMRO Bank NV 2.Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank Ltd 3.American Express Bank Ltd 4.Bank of Bahrain & Kuwait BSC 5.Mashreq Bank PSC 6.Bank of Nova Scotia 7.Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi UFJ Ltd 8.Citibank NA 9.Deutsche Bank 10.Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation 11. Societe Generale 12.Sonali Bank 13.BNP Paribas 14.BARCLAYS Bank plc 15.DBS Bank Ltd 16.Bank International Indonesia 17.Arab Bangladesh Bank Ltd 18.Standard Chartered Bank 19.State Bank of Mauritius Ltd 20.Bank of Ceylon 21. Cho Hung Bank 22.Chinatrust Commercial Bank Ltd 23.Krung Thai Bank Ltd 24.Antwerp Diamond Bank NV 25.JP Morgan Chase Bank 26.Mizuho Corporate Bank Ltd 27.Oman International Bank SAOG 28.Calyon Bank Local Government Cooperative Bank (State Co -operative Banks) 1.The Andaman and Nicobar State Co-operative Bank Ltd 2.The Andhra Pradesh State Co-operative Bank Ltd 3.The Arunachal Pradesh State Co-operative Apex Bank Ltd 4.The Assam Co-operative Apex Bank Ltd 5 . The Bihar State Co-operative Bank Ltd 6.The Chandigarh State Co-operative Bank Ltd 7.The Delhi State Co-operative Bank Ltd 8.The Goa State Co-operative Bank Ltd 9.The Gujarat State Co-operative Bank Ltd 10 . The Haryana State Co-operative Apex Bank Ltd 11.The Himachal Pradesh State Co-operative Bank Ltd 12.The Jammu and Kashmir State Co-operative Bank Ltd 13.The Karnataka State Co-operative Apex Bank Ltd 14.The Kerala State Co -operative Bank Ltd 15.The Madhya Pradesh Rajya Sahakari Bank Maryadit 16.The Maharashtra State Co-operative Bank Ltd 17.The Manipur State Co-operative Bank Ltd 18.The Meghalaya Co-operative Apex Bank Ltd 19.The Mizoram Co-operative Apex Bank Ltd 20.The Nagaland State Co-operative Bank Ltd 21.The Orissa State Co-operative Bank Ltd 22.The Pondicherry State Co-operative Bank Ltd 23.The Punjab State Co-operative Bank Ltd 24.The Rajasthan State Co- operative Bank Ltd 25.The Sikkim State Co-operative Bank Ltd 26.The Tamil Nadu State Apex Co-operative Bank Ltd 27.The Tripura State Co-operative Bank Ltd 28.The Uttar Pradesh Co-operative Bank Ltd (eight) traffic in recent years, Indian air passenger and cargo transport energy demand and increase in November 2007, for example, passenger transport increase of 27.1% over last year, the number reached 1, 023 million, of which 7.61 million domestic passenger trips, an increase of 28.9% over the same period last year, All domestic airport in Mumbai passenger capacity of up to 1.65 million passengers, an increase of 34% over last year, New Delhi and Bang Jialuo also showed high growth; international passenger 2, 620, 000 passengers, up to 22% annual growth, including Mumbai and Delhi and distributing international Traveler's energy accounted for 52.3% of India, Chennai is listed as the third largest international airport in November 2007 amounted to 280, 000 passengers transported. Another air cargo also increased by 7% to reach 10 million tonnes of cargo, such as on the April to November 2007 statistics, the total number of passengers carried, up to 7, 583 million passengers, up to 23% annual growth. Since 2000, China Airlines has opened Taipei flights to New Delhi route, currently a total of five classes per week 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, daily morning fly from Taipei New Delhi in the afternoon back to Taipei, the future may increase to daily service; Evergreen Air that is in the open sky background, from December 2006 onwards, sailing Taipei flights to Mumbai route, 3, 5, 7 afternoon's weekly flights from Taipei Mumbai, 1, 4, 6 am from Mumbai back to Taipei. In addition to fighting between the two airlines of passengers aboard Taiwan and India, but also the use of Taiwan as a signet America halfway point between the advantages to attract America West Indian travelers widely applied. India, in addition to actively built or renovated Delhi, Bang Jialuo, Hyderabad and other major airports, but also to begin rebuilding 35 seating airport, which is located in the Taj Mahal in Agra Airport has been updated, and another seven airports will be completed renovation, in addition, the Indian government is also actively update the 35 airports internal facilities, planning in 10 years put $ 50 billion in the international airport modernization, is expected to generate 3 million jobs. In the sea, the Indian ports bear 95% of the foreign trade transportation task, in recent years, have also been added to the container stations, inland container terminal, in addition, also for the port and road, rail convergence between the work, in addition, to increase efficiency, has 8, 800 tons of cargo handling 300 million of 13 marina privatization, and many continue to be retrofitted into the container port shipment. India's largest container port JNPT Port in Mumbai suburbs, a depth of about 13.5 meters, an average of about 1.67 days to deal with a container ship, dock a total length of 3, 200 meters, the maximum permissible load 6, 000 containers of cargo ships coming into port, occupies about 60% of the All India container shipments, bulk cargo port which was located in the eastern Indian state of AP Visakhapatnam, Orissa Paradip and Calcutta as the state's top three ports. Indian ports total energy load of only 700 million annually 5, 000 tons, the actual container throughput of 8.6 million TEU (20-foot container), is still far better than other countries. As compared to various parts of India, Gujarat State port cargo throughput highest, followed by Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu and other states. India's current general road traffic chaos, all kinds of vehicles, pedestrians and all kinds of animals struggle to live honestly, even via highway, also pay attention to constantly grab Road pedestrians, animals and bicycles, motorcycles, etc., and generally quite crowded roads, Roads area is limited, often bumpy, causing the vehicle velocity is limited, often expected one hour's drive, you may drag two hours on the opening race and rushed appointments are quite economical. Although the general road quality is poor, but the total up to 3.3 million kilometers, ranking second in the world, responsible for 85% of the passenger traffic, cargo volume has accounted for 61%, but India has only 2.75 km per thousand roads per 1, 000 square kilometers also only 770 kilometers long of roads, still a far cry from the world average. To this end, the Government of India in the next five years is expected to invest $ 90 billion to improve traffic, road passenger volume is expected to grow by an annual 12 to 15 percent, the average annual growth in cargo capacity is 15-18%. India's state-owned approximately 60, 000 6, 590 km expressway, state secondary road about 120 000 8, 000 kilometers, each responsible for 40% of the amount of land. In 2015, 50, 000 km long developed a state-owned road, the Indian government has planned to seven ad hoc manner, invested $ 60 billion boost. You need to complete the first phase of the 5, 846 km Golden quadrilateral highway project project, I Continental Engineering Company also cooperate with Indian construction company, contracted short works which currently total nearly 88% of the works have been completed, of which gold quadrilateral highway project Completed 95%. Another Phase II project will build 6, 319 kilometers of four-lane east-west and north-south of the corridor, and has completed 15%, in the third phase of the project, and has completed 4, 815 kilometers of roads contracting works, the rest remain to expand . In Phase IV, and is expected to be a beacon two-lane state-owned 20, 000 km long roads. Indian government to obtain financial resources in the national highway development, in addition to extra-budgetary provision, also received the assistance of international development banks, and some also from the central road fund and market borrowing, however, the current preferred way to PPP (public-private partnership) apply, according to statistics , to September 30, 2007 only, the amount reached $ 8.1 billion public-private partnership, is expected from the third phase of the project after the contract will be the basis of this model, when the private builders of project costs, toll fees will be charged way, as compensation. Indian Railways network cable length of 3, 000 km over 60, 000 a day more than 7, 395 were issued 10, 000 vehicle trips, including 8, 707 passenger trips are a total of 16 million passengers carried. Although every year hundreds of railroad accident occurred, but throughout the year the railway passengers carried more than 6.3 billion passengers, cargo has also reached 700 million 2, 841 million tons, display plays a very important railway traffic alleviation role. Because operating properly, according to the Indian Railways Bureau statistics, in April 2006-March 2007 period, the freight revenue up to 105 billion U.S. dollars, an increase of 15.5% compared to the same period last year, passenger revenue was more than 4.3 billion U.S. dollars, an increase over the previous year 13.8%. Such as statistics on traffic, passenger and cargo traffic between the 2006-7 year, respectively, compared with the same period last year increased by 7% and 9%. Modernization of Indian Railways is also evident, in addition to constantly improve the internal management system, but also continue to promote railway electrification, the purchase of new types of vehicles, in addition, New Delhi 3 mass rapid transit system gradually by the local people to use, and the continued expansion of the route, and the other in Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore and other places are also planning the construction of medium and high volume rapid transit system. (Nine) Indian logistics industry, manufacturing, agro-processing industry vigorous activities, many small and medium enterprises to commence foreign trade, the increasing influx of foreign motor vehicles, electronics and communications industries, and manufacturing growth every year, coupled with recent modern retail industry continues to expand the site, prompting the local logistics industry with an average annual growth rate of 16% booming, the market size will be closed from U.S. $ 100 billion in 2007, growing to $ 125 billion in 2010, but due to local Indian trade and logistics infrastructure is still backward, the annual total logistics costs accounted for the proportion of the gross domestic product of more than 13%, higher than the United States and Europe 10%. India's logistics industry is still more control in the hands of small, informal organization, with more than 66% across India for individual delivery company owns five following categories of trucks, operating income more than 80% of the total, domestic freight forwarding department, it resembles the thousands of small scale brokers and forwarders composition. Since the continuous expansion of modern retailing sites, and Mumbai, Bang Jialuo, New Delhi, Chennai and Hyderabad and other places significant increase in income, many enterprises to improve their competitiveness, focusing on core competencies, reduce logistics costs and have to change the existing sales policy, outsourcing (outsource) to a third party storage and transportation services (Third-party logistics) / professional logistics service providers, these professional logistics industry has begun to invest heavily to accelerate delivery speed and provide warehousing services to provide fast, secure and reliable, point and a full type of service, sea and air freight forwarder has also started to invest in its own container depots, inland container yards and container delivery distribution tool, however, India's share of third-party storage and transportation services to the proportion of the overall logistics business is not and 10%, less advanced countries more than 35% level. India is currently the national highway road area only 2%, but 40% of the country responsible for the transportation volume, addition, population, road congestion, the average speed of only 20 kilometers per hour, in addition to India's 12 major ports facilities large enough and too old, already more than the current throughput of the load, resulting in import and export operation can not smooth, efficiency can not be improved, and complicated administrative procedures and state sector and the delivery of goods traffic checkpoint whether the tax, but also hinder the development of the logistics industry, however, the majority of India the state has begun to implement value added tax VAT, significantly reducing administrative jobs, and most states have abolished cross-border transport of goods taxes (Octroi), should facilitate the development of the logistics industry. India's logistics industry to meet the export industry, and has been with the Taiwan Express Cargo Forwarding Company consistent with global industry alliance, the global logistics industry, such as UPS, DHL and more specifically for individual small and medium businesses set up service points, offers a variety of specialized services to ensure reduce the risk of collecting small exporters, therefore, India UPS, DHL and other logistics industry revenue comes from SMEs accounts for more than 30%. Competition in the logistics industry pricing patterns and more a general, our industry, such as transporting goods via UPS or DHL, flow of goods between two places in Taiwan and India only about three days or so to arrive, and in the course of delivery, the owner can always where to check the goods, probably on its rates by DHL, UPS higher fees per half a kilo of parcels shipped to Taiwan from Mumbai rates were 2, 483 rupees ($ 1 is approximately equal to 39 rupees) and 1, 992 rupees, 1 kg The parcels were 2, 952 rupees, 2, 367 rupees, 10 kg weight of the parcels were 9, 044 rupees, 7, 003 rupees, and the other local players such as Blue Dart, Professional and Gati lower charges, but five kilograms or more general than the local UPS delivery The courier industry is high, and even more competitive. Also at the cost price, the various operators are currently attach another 12-16% of the fuel costs, and 12.36% of the service tax, in addition, exports to India for sale of goods, or a large number of promotional items is yet to pay 20 % to 40% range of the import duties. Indian mainland courier delivery, the result of inefficient post office, function is not strong, playing the role of a limited, general business more efficient and convenient choice by private courier industry, as contending compete with each other in a number of service standards are superior to many known overnight delivery the government, service costs such as in 1 kilogram, about 1-6 U.S. dollars between, though they have yet additional service tax 12.36% and fuel surcharges, which DHL charges more expensive, and the remaining Blue Dart, Professional and Gati and other relatively inexpensive, generally , if, considering the domestic conveyance expenses and efficiency, Gati and Professional of such companies are good choices. (2) China's logistics industry Zheyi space I occupy Synnex logistics industry has invested $ 24 million acquisition of India's second largest IT products distributor Redington sale of 36.3% stake, the fact that the Indian logistics industry continues to expand, there is still the opportunity to join foreign eating. Maritime services in Mumbai, India All India Jawaharlal Nehru Port is the largest port container throughput, two container terminal at the port handled a total of JNPCT and NSICT All India more than half of the container volume, China's Wan Hai, Evergreen, Yang Ming and Germany Cheung and other four shipping companies are to establish a foothold in Mumbai, and Mumbai are mostly export containers destined for the Far East, Europe and America, accounting for 60%, followed by South Asia and the Middle East also has 30% of the range of freight. Because of geopolitical relations, Pakistan imports about 40% from India, because of territorial disputes led to land transport is blocked, but the thermal envelope of the international trade practices still can not stop, so many containers to Middle East Dubai Hong Kong as a relay station, the ultimate goal remains Pakistan. Sea transport of ten thousand five years ago that the establishment of subsidiaries, and part of the broker's business reverted to self-ownership, currently in Chennai and Kolkata and other places Jieyou stronghold, some cargo vessels between Chennai and Keelung; Evergreen Marine first set up an office to set up a subsidiary, currently in New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and other 12 Individually directly under the office locations from Mumbai Headquarters Command, for the expansion of business in recent years, Evergreen more parties troop movements from Taiwan Qianjiang, direct command of the Indian companies, many of the original will be vested in the possession of the Indian brokers reverted to direct their own business, and the link from the headquarters to the branch office's computer system, direct unified management, financial, operational, display, Evergreen optimistic about India growth trend, Yang Ming Marine Transport Yiyin promising Indian market in three years ago, a joint venture with a local broker Yang Ming Marine Transport Corporation of India, but also in New Delhi, Chennai and other places to set up directly under the office constantly; Tak Cheung optimistic about the result of our business volume in 2007 was sent to Mumbai stagnation.

2008-10-23 20:45:01 by SomeBlonde

Real uses of tools - part 1

HAMMER: Originally employed as a weapon of war, the hammer nowadays is used as a kind of divining rod to locate expensive car parts not far from the object we are trying to hit.
MECHANIC'S KNIFE: Used to open and slice through the contents of cardboard cartons delivered to your front door; works particularly well on boxes containing convertible tops or tonneau covers.
ELECTRIC HAND DRILL: Normally used for spinning steel Pop rivets in their holes until you die of old age, but it also works great for drilling rollbar mounting holes in the floor of a sports car just above the brake line that goes to the rear axle

2013-07-23 10:21:20 by ozzie

Does take a while to understand legalese

, but not that difficult to become an expert in a narrow area relatively quickly
I find the less local county law library much friendlier than the closer law school library.
Usually law librarians are happy to show you where things are as long as you have a concept of the direction you want to head and ask “Where is… “ instead of “How do I ….(which is considered asking for legal advice)”
It is generally easier to start with background information sources on your topic. Many subject areas have looseleaf services that are kept up to date monthly and may be all you need

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